The SSL/TLS protocol has been taking a beating, but it’s hard to argue we have many better options.
Let’s try anyways.
We’re going to have your program communicate over a simple SSL replacement protocol. This will be an unauthenticated protocol (no certificates), but it will have forward secrecy. Your program will speak this protocol and implement a simple echo server.
First off, our protocol needs to agree on some information up front.
We’re going to set up two variables that we’ll call
case you’re wondering, I generated both of these numbers using
openssl dhparam -text -2 2048.
prime = "00f2b2ab9d7b23c84f9f0ec2f3bc40c5c4ec" + "4764a7c3d01449662620dd43f3d97a64515a" + "2af5b3c8e3f224b8d18d07b6b62261200ad8" + "48f5ff8ac19a1b7343994de846de69c1c2ee" + "5e62fe4ed374e685e486f1b897d72d01df5c" + "99ae72b8e9a31777ccaa11a5ae6ca08cfc81" + "0269337660248d0be9b8214ecdd4656f207d" + "2977a7364e443acf431af76aead7224f86a0" + "3eb9998692acebd50c558ce9a7fefc37ab24" + "2f0c19b51a0167d5dae94b853210f6f492a9" + "bbb39ad809396b44a299bd85acafdfedbc4d" + "21ae2ec307ab3dab09d799c6011c41cf813d" + "621ef205cf2276d0cf7acf09108e14a8b8dd" + "e1ee2045deaebdb529dbd187d4ee4b30a946" + "58b156ac33" base = 2
Hang on to your hat;
prime is a huge number. You may want to get a big number
library to parse and handle it. I wrote it out as a string of hex above.
For each new connection using this protocol, peers will each generate a random
private. It should be a large random integer between 0
prime (exclusive). Once you have
private, you can make
public, which is
base raised to the
private power, modulo
public = (base ** private) % prime in Python syntax.
Your program will be a server, and servers will wait to receive the first
message in this protocol. The client will send a client hello, which will be
the string as described by Python:
"SimpleSSLv0\n%x\n" % client_public.
Once your server receives this client hello, your server should respond with
"OK\n%x\n" % server_public.
Now you can compute the session id, which will be
session_id = (client_public ** server_private) % prime, or if you were the
session_id = (server_public ** client_private) % prime.
session_id should be stored as a string of 257-bytes in big-endian form
(you may have to prepend zero-bytes) and SHA-256 hashed. The first 16 bytes of
the SHA-256 hash of the byte representation of
session_id will be the AES-128
encryption key for this session. We’ll be using AES-128 in GCM mode (with a
12-byte nonce, no additional authenticated data). The server will start with a
nonce at 0 and count up for every outgoing message. The client will start with
a nonce at the max nonce value (so, 2^(12*8) - 1) and count down for every
Messages will start with a 4-byte message payload length and then the message payload. The message payload consists of the ciphertext from GCM mode followed by the 16-byte GCM tag. You should expect big-endian encoding for all serialized numbers.
 While 257 bytes was originally a mistake, it’s too late to change now, so you get to do 257 bytes! 257 will be my mark of shame.
This problem is a little harder to provide a concrete example, since your program’s output influences the test case (for generating the session id). Nonetheless, our example test will output the message it’s sending, its private key (which will be 123), its public key, its session id, and what the client sends to your server.
The following exchange depicts what it may look like. Hex and binary strings have been shortened in the example exchange.
client: "SimpleSSLv0\n28bdc9eb9bfb395bcd971e8...\n" server: "OK\n6fb3de4a5cf0003d71be9e8...\n" client: "\x00\x00\x00\x0a\xc8/\xff,\xed\x18\xe5\xa2bD..." server: "\x00\x00\x00\x0c=\xcd#\x10:*~\x021\x19\xba5..." ...
Congratulations, you just completed Diffie-Hellman key exchange!
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